By J. Desmond Baggot
Textual content is anxious with the foundation of species adjustments, the choice of pharmacokinetic parameters and the translation of values acquired. contains chapters on bioavailability and its software to veterinary dosage varieties, adjustments in drug disposition and interspecies scaling, and drug permeation. For researchers and scholars.
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Extra info for The Physiological Basis of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology
Some conjugates excreted in bile are susceptible to hydrolysis by b-glucuronidase, which is present in the intestinal bacteria. If the liberated parent drug is lipid-soluble, it will be reabsorbed and an enterohepatic cycle established. Enterohepatic cycling (circulation) prolongs the presence of a drug in the body and it is gradually eliminated by renal excretion. The slow rate of glucuronide synthesis in cats can be attributed to a deficiency of the transferring enzyme, microsomal glucuronyl transferase.
Imidazole-containing drugs, such as cimetidine (H2 -receptor antagonist) and ketoconazole (antifungal agent) bind tightly to the haeme iron of cytochrome P450 and competitively inhibit the metabolism of endogenous substances and concurrently administered drugs. , 1988; Ortiz-de-Montellano, 1988). g. chloramphenicol, inhibit the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes through covalent interaction with a reactive intermediate to which the substance is metabolically converted by the enzymes. At least some nonmicrosomal enzymes can be inhibited.
The more widely a drug is distributed, the lower the concentration and fraction in the plasma of the amount of drug in the body. g. furosemide, phenylbutazone) is largely limited to the extracellular fluid. An analogous situation applies to antimicrobial agents. The pharmacokinetic term that is used to estimate the extent of distribution of a drug is the volume of distribution (Vd ). This parameter indicates the apparent space (L/kg) in the body available to contain the drug. Volume of distribution relates the amount of drug in the body to the concentration in the plasma or blood, depending upon the fluid measured, at any time after pseudodistribution equilibrium has been attained.
The Physiological Basis of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology by J. Desmond Baggot