By Stephen C. Thierauf
A key element of circuit board layout, sign integrity (SI) refers back to the degree of the standard of an electric sign. This specific publication presents circuit board designers and technical managers, and undertaking leaders with functional tips on knowing and examining sign integrity functionality. execs locate high-level discussions of vital SI strategies awarded in a transparent and simply available layout, together with query and solution sections and bulleted lists. This important source gains principles of thumb and straightforward equations to assist practitioners make estimates of severe sign integrity parameters with out utilizing circuit simulators of CAD (computer-aided design). The publication is supported with over one hundred twenty illustrations, approximately a hundred equations, and specific reference lists on the finish of every bankruptcy.
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These simulations are likely to show excessive margin or unrealistic signal characteristics. There are special instances when the signaling environment is known in great detail or where the electrical characteristics can be specified to within very small tolerances. These cases often involve very high-performance signaling, or high-reliability systems signaling at more modest rates. In other instances electrical measurements of actual hardware can be used to fine-tune an existing SI model. In these cases modern SI CAD will predict the actual signal wave shape and other attributes with great precision.
Additionally, the interaction between phases is not shown [for instance, the continual feedback between debug and design verification testing (DVT)]. During the product’s architectural phase, a senior, experienced SI engineer identifies the limits of technology (such as circuit board size or thickness or ASIC signaling speeds) and broadly defines the circuitry requiring detailed analysis. New CAD tools are also evaluated and purchased at this time, including 2D and 3D field solvers . Decisions are made as to the type of models (transistor level or IBIS circuit models, lossy transmission line, or S-parameter models, for example) that will be used.
Each IBIS model should be checked to insure it has the proper components for a given analysis. 3 Modeling Transmission Lines Short transmission lines are sometimes modeled as a string of resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Models of this type are occasionally provided by vendors for small structures such as connectors, and signal integrity engineers sometimes create these models for vias. The resistors represent conductor and dielectric signal loss, but because the resistors are fixed values they do not change with frequency.
Understanding Signal Integrity by Stephen C. Thierauf